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    明成祖朱棣選擇遷都燕京的目的有哪些 他選擇遷都是重大戰略失誤

      永樂十四年(1416年),明成祖朱棣決定將首都從南京應天府,遷往北平順天府。永樂十九年(1421年)正月,大明王朝的首都正式從南京搬遷到了北平,并改名為北京。

    image.png

      朱棣遷都的目的主要有兩個:一是遠離南方的政治勢力。因為朱棣的皇位是通過武力從侄子建文帝手中奪過來的,期間采用了非常殘酷的鎮壓手段,所以在許多南方人眼里,朱棣是個徹頭徹尾的暴君。而北方是朱棣發跡的地方,也是他勢力的根基。把都城從南京遷到北京,有利于進一步削弱南方士大夫的政治勢力。

      二是北京戰略地位非常突出,是連結東北與關內的咽喉要地。朱棣把首都選在北京,就可以在北京附近屯集重兵。既可以防止北方蒙古勢力的偷襲,也可以親自牢牢掌控住兵權,這一點對用武力奪取到天下的朱棣而言,尤為重要。

      此外,北京是朱棣發跡的地方,也就是所謂的“龍興之地”。從古人迷信的風水角度來講,朱棣也會更看好將北京做為首都。

    image.png

      不過,朱棣遷都北京對他自己來說雖然沒什么問題,可對于明朝后來的皇帝而言,卻不是件好事。北京戰略位置突出這點毋庸置疑,可是一旦敵軍突破長城,北京就面臨沒有戰略緩沖地帶的尷尬局面。敵軍可以長驅直入兵臨城下,這是一個非常致命的缺點。

      正統十四年(1449年),明英宗御駕親征蒙古瓦剌部,結果在土木堡被打敗,明英宗本人成了俘虜。瓦剌大軍順勢越過長城,包圍了北京城,明朝差點遭遇滅頂之災。

      嘉靖二十九年(1550年),蒙古土默特部首領俺答汗率部包圍了北京,大明王朝再次面臨生死存亡。幸虧北京城防嚴密,蒙古人無從下手,最后縱兵劫掠了北京周邊后主動退兵了。

      崇禎二年(1629年)十月,后金八旗軍從龍井關、洪山口、大安口突入關內,直逼北京。明軍付出了慘重的代價,終于成功守住了北京城。但京畿地區遭到后金軍的大肆擄掠,民生涂炭。

      崇禎十七年(1644年),李自成率農民起義軍攻占了北京,崇禎皇帝自縊殉國,明朝滅亡。此時,明朝在南方地區,還有軍隊超過百萬。

      那么,問題來了。當初朱棣選擇遷都是重大戰略失誤嗎?

    image.png

      要回答這個問題,首先就要來看看當時的北京到底適不適合做首都。古人對北京的評價是“幽州之地,左環滄海,右擁太行,北枕居庸,南襟河濟,誠天府之國”。從這句話中我們可以看出,北京的地理位置絕佳。在明朝之前的元朝和明朝之后的清朝都把首都選在了北京,由此也可見北京確實具備了一個理想首都的條件。可問題在于,元朝和清朝的統治者一個來自蒙古草原,一個來自關外的東北。對他們來說,定都北京,進可奪取中原,退可回到長城以外,當然是絕佳的選擇。但明朝作為一個中原王朝,將首都放在緊鄰邊疆的位置真的合適嗎?

    image.png

      對于朱棣這樣一位擁有雄才大略的帝王而言,定都北京,可以有效震懾北方的蒙古,時常還可以來個御駕親征,打擊蒙古殘余勢力,在軍事調度方面,北京也比南京要方便很多。但這一切的前提條件是建立在明朝擁有強大實力的背景下。一旦王朝開始衰落,國防力量不足,北京就成了外來入侵的重點目標。明朝歷史上多次遭遇兵臨城下的尷尬境地,就是最好的例子。

      此外,北京遠離富庶的江南地區,國家的經濟命脈全靠漕運維持。一旦南面發生戰事,漕運被截斷,那么北京城的處境就可想而知了。而且定都北京,雖然加強了對北方的軍事控制力,但卻削弱了對南方的經濟控制力。明末時期,崇禎皇帝窮得發不出糧餉,但江南地區的富商卻依舊是過著夜夜笙歌的奢靡生活。

      所以,朱棣選擇遷都北京是不是重大戰略失誤,這個問題不能簡單的說對還是錯,關鍵還得因人而異。像朱棣這類尚武的帝王,定都北京可以更好的施展他的雄途霸業。可要是像明朝后期萬歷皇帝這種什么活都不想干的帝王而言,北京靠近邊塞,地理位置實在是太兇險了。


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