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    朱棣遷都燕京的過程是什么樣的 遷都燕京的影響有哪些

      過程

      明太祖定都南京

      由于歷代統一王朝的都城大多都在中原,明朝統一全國之初,明太祖便打算擇機將京師遷往北方。洪武元年,下詔以汴梁為北平,以金陵為南京,效仿周唐的京平故事。洪武二年,朱元璋又在故鄉河南鳳陽營建中都,同時下令從江南移民中都。但是開封和鳳陽都是久經戰亂,破敗不堪,難以承擔京師的重任,朱元璋于是放棄了遷都這兩處的打算。洪武十一年,罷北平,改南京為京師。

    image.png

      由此,南京再次成為中國的政治、經濟、文化中心,迎來歷史上的發展高峰。明初京師(即南京)總人口近百萬人,是當時中國規模最大、人口最多的城市,也是世界上最大的城市,修造歷時達27年的南京明城墻,是世界上第一大城垣。雞籠山麓的國子監學生多達近萬人,還有日本、朝鮮等國的留學生在此學習。

      明成祖遷都北平

      靖難之役后的永樂元年(1403年),禮部尚書李至剛等奏稱,燕平北平是皇帝“龍興之地”,應當效仿明太祖對河南鳳陽的做法,立為陪都。明成祖于是大力擢升燕平北平府的地位,以北平為北平府,改北平府為順天府,稱為“行在”。同時開始遷發人民以充實北平;被強令遷入北平的有各地流民、江南富戶和山西商人等百姓等。

      永樂四年,下詔以南京皇宮(南京故宮)為藍本,興建北平皇宮和城垣。

    image.png

      永樂七年,明成祖以北平為基地進行北征,同時開始在北平附近的昌平修建長陵。將自己的陵墓修在北平而不是南京,證明明成祖已經下定決心要遷都。

      永樂八年,親征回師后,明成祖下令開會通河,打通南北漕運。永樂十三年完工,從此北平所需物資可以通過相對經濟地運輸。

      永樂十四年,明成祖召集群臣,正式商議遷都北平的事宜。對于提出反對意見的臣工,明成祖一一革職或嚴懲,從此無人再敢反對遷都。次年,以南京紫禁城為模板的北平紫禁城正式動工。

      永樂十八年,北平皇宮和北平城建成。北平皇宮以南京皇宮為藍本,規模稍大。新修的北平城周長四十五里,呈規則的方形,符合《周禮·考工記》中理想的都城的形制。明成祖下詔正式遷都,改金陵應天府為南京,改北平順天府為京師,但在南京仍設六部等中央機構,稱南京某部,以南京為留都。

      明仁宗還都南京

      剛剛遷都幾個月的永樂十九年初夏,紫禁城的奉天、華蓋、謹身三大殿遭雷擊,盡皆焚毀。朝野議論紛紛。禮部主事蕭儀認為,遷都后諸事不便,且棄絕皇脈與孝陵,有違天意。成祖大怒,立即處死蕭儀,并以強權壓制朝中大臣。

    image.png

      明成祖死后,明仁宗即位。明仁宗長期作為太子在南京監國,即位后,面對殘破的北平皇宮,立刻有還都南京的打算,下令修葺南京宮殿。隨即,北平六部原印信收回,新印信重又加印“行在”,等于廢除了北平作為京師的地位。但仁宗享國日短,未滿一年即已駕崩,此時還都的實際行動尚未展開。盡管仁宗的遺詔中強烈表明了他希望還都的意愿,繼位的明宣宗還是暫緩了還都的計劃。明宣宗的兒子明英宗繼位后,正式確定北平為明朝京師,不再稱行在,從此終明一代再未改變。

      影響

      政治和軍事

      大都陷落、元朝滅亡約半個世紀后,全國的政治中心再度回到北方。自石敬瑭向契丹割讓燕云十六州后,北平附近已有約500年不在漢族朝廷中央政權控制之下;而靖康之變后,整個華北地區也已經有近250年由異族統治。成祖遷都后,北平及其周邊成為明朝的核心統治地域,漢族政權對華北的控制達到前所未有的程度。

      贊賞成祖遷都的意見認為,其一,由于首都距離長城很近,中央政府可以有效地管理和調動軍隊抵御侵略。成祖本人就曾以北平為基地五次北伐元朝的殘余勢力,北平在軍事指揮上的優點是處于后方的南京無法比擬的。同時,天子戍邊的氣勢以及皇宮和先帝陵寢俱在前線的事實,使朝廷上下在面對危機時更有抵抗的決心;例如土木堡之變、平軍覆滅之后,明朝堅決地組織了北平保衛戰,而不是像西晉、北宋一樣放棄北方。其二,輔佐建文帝的多為江南人士,成組即位后,在南京殺戮過甚,唯恐結怨太深,有損執政基礎。從穩固皇位考慮,返回其發跡之地似乎更為有利。

    image.png

      而反對者則認為,一方面遷都北平給明朝財政造成了巨大的壓力,另一方面北平地位陡然提升,令整個北方防線在向內收縮的同時也向北平集中,反而破壞了明太祖時北方邊防的均衡配置。明宣宗放棄開平等三衛后,長城以外明軍再無據點,令北平暴露了兩翼,也失去了戰略縱深,使京師長期處于外敵的直接威脅下,同時也是明中期蒙古在大漠、明后期女真在遼東坐大的重要肇因。

      經濟

      明朝初期,華北相對于江南的貧困相當明顯。北平的營建使北方的生產和人口迅速恢復。但是,作為一個巨大的消費城市,京師對物資的大量需求無法就近解決,必須依賴于大運河從江南轉輸。因此在明清兩朝,漕運均具有極其重要的經濟地位。漕運的繁盛帶動了運河沿線市鎮的發展,如揚州、臨清和滄州等,進一步促進了北方經濟的恢復。

    image.png

      而反對者一般認為,政治中心和經濟中心的過分遠離為明朝和繼之的清朝經濟增添了巨大的、不必要的負擔。另一方面,由于大運河關乎京師命脈,漕運從純粹的經濟行為上升為帶有明顯政治意義的行為。在運河沿線發生水患時,公家卻只會優先保護漕運的利益,而往往忽視周邊百姓的安全。


    《路邊歷史編輯》

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