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    千刀萬剮指的是什么 難道真的要砍上一千刀嗎

      說起我國古代封建王朝時期的律法,那就不能繞開刑罰這個領域了。我國古代的刑罰可以說是五花八門的。雖然懲罰手段都不一樣,但大體可以用一個詞形容,那就是“殘忍”。隨著朝代的不斷推移變遷,大多數殘酷刑罰已逐漸被廢除,然而,有一項殘酷的刑罰,一直從唐末五代時期,延續到清朝滅亡。這就是我們經常在影視劇作中聽到的“凌遲處死”。

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      凌遲俗稱“千刀萬剮”,在封建社會,能獲得這種極刑的懲罰,其人想必也是罪大惡極。據史料記載,凌遲針對的罪行主要是“謀反、犯上作亂、欺君”等罪,由此看來,罪犯一般都是威脅到封建統治階級利益的政治犯。除此之外,子女弒父母、弟弒兄、謀殺親夫、奴弒主以及殺害同一家族三人以上、組織幫派制造恐怖活動的罪犯,也會受到此刑。

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      說凌遲的“藝術”性,其實具體是體現在“遲”字上,即不會立即讓犯人死亡。有時甚至要判犯人要被凌遲幾天,那么,在未到規定的日期和刀數之前,犯人是不準咽氣的。如果提前死了,行刑的劊子手就要受到嚴厲處罰。如此看來,這豈非也是一門技術活?甚至對于能做到如此的劊子手來說,這算不算是一種“藝術”?

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      至于凌遲具體的執行方式,歷代也不一樣,以明清兩朝為例,清朝末年是八刀刑畢。史載明朝的大太監劉瑾因謀反罪被判凌遲三天,共受三千三百五十七刀,行刑時每十刀一歇,一吆喝。第一天共割了三百五十七刀,割下的肉一片片像指甲蓋一般大小,自胸口從左至右開始動刀,據說第一天行刑完,晚上劉瑾回監獄還喝了兩碗白粥。

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      關于凌遲的具體刀數和切割部位,不同朝代有不同說法。一般是八刀:1.臉 2.手足3.胸腹最后一刀梟首。但實際上大多數情況下都要多于八刀。清朝就有二十四、三十六、七十二、一百二這么幾種刀數分類。歷史上死于凌遲之刑的名人也有不少,以明清為例,明朝的大太監劉瑾、崇禎年間的將領袁崇煥即死于此刑;清朝康熙年間的藩王耿精忠、太平天國的翼王石達開以及天王洪秀全之子,也是死于凌遲之刑。

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      戊戌變法后,清政府受到國內外各方壓力,不得不革除一些弊政。1905年,凌遲被大清律法廢除。同時也宣告了凌遲退出了封建社會律法的舞臺。中國封建社會最后一個死于凌遲之刑的人是清末的江洋大盜康小八。其實他死時凌遲之刑已在大清刑典上廢除了兩周。隨著他的死亡,凌遲之刑也隨著封建社會的結束一起被掩埋在歷史的長河中。


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