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    揭秘:明朝時期官員的俸祿有多低?

      無論是哪朝哪代,各個王朝政府中最嚴重也是最難根治的問題便是腐敗問題,無論是哪個朝代,對于忠臣明君我們總能說上幾個,但是對于貪官污吏同樣是被人詬病至今的話題,而一旦說道反貪治腐問題,最受人關注的一個朝代便是在明朝初期的朱元璋下令整治貪官的那一段時間,而其中的許多政策也常常被人提出來進行研究,其中很出名的一個說法便是低俸制的養廉手段,那么低俸制到底對建設廉潔的政府有沒有用呢?

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      首先要先對古代官員的工資進行一個研究,古代官員的工資被稱之為俸祿是有原因的,其中包括的是俸和祿兩個部分,對于兩者的區別也可以十分輕易地劃分,其中俸是指每個月拿到的錢財,而祿則相對來說多種多樣,其中包括有糧食,絹,布,碳等比較常見的生活物資,甚至還抱過有香料和鹽等調味品,這一系列的福利加一起才稱之為俸祿,而這種俸祿制度最早可以追溯到西周時期,之后的官員體質不斷完善后,俸祿的發放制度成為了一個朝代內部體質信息的關鍵因素。

      對俸祿發放最少的要數明朝和漢朝了,但是明朝時期的俸祿之低是從來未曾有過的,甚至俸祿都低于正常生活的程度,不僅低級官員生活較為貧苦,高級官員,正二品海瑞,僅僅因為母親生日所以買了兩斤肉也成了朝中新聞,在死后其遺產更是只有8兩銀子和一些早已破舊不堪的衣服,如此貧苦甚至還不如民間的一些從商家庭水平,而翻看明朝的史籍也可以從中發現許多清貧到去世之后的喪葬費用也無法承擔的官員,很大程度上都是因為朱元璋早年的貧苦生活與對官員拿著高昂俸祿卻不工作的狀態的仇視。

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      朱元璋總共三次對官員的薪水進行調整,同時將正一品到九品中間分出了18個檔次,并且將工資標準鐫刻于石碑,還下令明朝以后只能以此作為俸祿的發放標準,而在之后的改革中,還將俸祿中的俸取消掉了,僅僅只是發放祿米,而正一品每年可以領到1044石,最低的正九品只能領到60石,其中一石只能供給一個人一個月的正常食用,也就是說一個正九品的小官,一個人一個月只能養活5口人的吃喝。

      而后來更是出現了全新的特色工資發放方式,其中被稱為折色,也就是發下的工資一部分為生活用品一部分為銀票,而官員越高,所發放的生活物資越少,后來所說的明朝低俸制其實也就是說的折色后的俸祿,這種發放模式雖然的確減少了很大部分的官員俸祿,但是卻并非是所謂的希望靠低薪養廉而出臺的政策,而是因為一些特殊官員的出現,其中就是藩王和宗室勢力,這些皇親國戚在最初僅僅58人,但是到了萬歷年卻達到了八萬多人,這些人不但和官員一樣享有俸祿的待遇,同時還享受賜田。

      所謂賜田便是擁有一大片免稅的農田可以用以耕種,這些人后面不但大肆的收購農田擴充自己的財富,同時還有很多商賈不斷地把自己非法收購的土地掛名給他們,以求逃稅的效果,這樣的情況就導致雖然明朝有著巨大的耕種面積,但是卻面臨每年所上繳的稅款越來越少,同時明朝為了擺脫財政危機采取的措施也并不是檢查這批皇親國戚,而是對正常老老實實工作的官員進行分割財產,每年拿到的俸祿也來越少。

    image.png

      而與明朝對比最明顯的便是宋朝的官員,宋朝時期的官員真的是十分幸福,相比于明朝來說,同等級的官員每個月的俸祿相差明朝可以有數十倍之多,這也就是為什么宋朝時期很多官員會有閑情逸致寫詩做對,曬自己每天的生活是多么開心多么悠閑,這也正映襯了許多人曾經鼓吹的高薪養廉,但是宋朝卻成為了貪官的天下,無數的老虎割據國家,而宋徽宗時期朝中官員不是貪官的屈指可數,也算是歷史一絕。

      而低薪養廉的效果又如何呢?明朝雖然不同于宋朝,但是卻走向了另一個極端,不但沒能起到養廉的作用,到了明朝中后期嘉靖年間所查出的嚴嵩,家產不計其數,甚至僅僅是把查出的財產記錄一遍都能出品成冊,一代名臣張居正的家產同樣擁有大量金銀珠寶,如果按照明朝時期的標準俸祿這一切都是不可能的,很多官員在已經無法滿足生活的俸祿面前心有不甘,也會開始走上貪腐的道路,所以這種薪資高低并不是控制貪腐的要素。


    《路邊歷史編輯》

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