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    快捷搜索:  as  angelina 0   usr bin id   8835  web inf web.xml  .. app.conf 0  imgurl  test

    明朝的文化到底是什么樣的 為什么還有人說是專制愚昧的

      明朝出了《水滸傳》、《三國演義》、《西游記》、《金瓶梅》、《封神演義》、《隋唐演義》、《說岳全傳》等等等,為什么現在很多人說明朝專制,百姓愚昧?

      分階段來看。

    image.png

      朱元璋和朱棣是高度專制時期。

      朱高熾,賦予內閣封駁權,由此皇帝和內閣開始較勁。

      朱瞻基,賦予太監批紅權。于是形成皇帝、內閣、太監三方權利制衡。這一套權力架構用了200多年,風風雨雨。

      之后就開始各展所長了。

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      明朝士大夫是很有氣節的,這個氣節的形成要追溯到宋朝程朱理學的影響。存天理,滅人欲。而且理學已經廣植人心,民風正直。當官的沒有政績要受人非議,言官的政績就在于上疏彈劾,簡單的說就是罵人。罵過皇帝的言官在民間著實可以風光一把。于是皇權受到限制。

      明朝形成政治環境寬松的起始于嘉靖。嘉靖不喜歡八股文,他選進士看重的是策論部分,貢生可以各抒己見,想些什么就寫什么。于是言論得到了開放(也是有禁條的,要是敢罵道士,那你就完了)。嘉靖時期是一個社會空間活躍的時期,名人輩出。同時王守仁心學的誕生,否定了封閉保守的理學思想。心學門人成百花齊放之勢。政治環境高度寬松,王世貞、唐順之、何心隱、李時珍、徐階、趙貞吉、李春芳等等人才輩出。文化、科技、軍事、經濟等等各方面都有大幅度發展,確保了萬歷時期資本主義萌芽的出現。

    image.png

      而嘉靖時期的內閣是能人和能人之間的戰斗,皇帝基本是高智商的閣臣們斗爭的工具。楊廷和、張璁、夏言、嚴嵩、徐階。。。。

      之后,到了萬歷。萬歷前期,張居正獨裁,關閉全國大部分書院,心學遭到承重打擊。張居正死后萬歷親政,心學再度得到發揚。政治上隨著“爭國本”事件拉開序幕,這時的政治斗爭格局也發生變化,文官反對皇帝,皇帝要求內閣辦理,而內閣倒向皇帝時,就會受到文官的一致攻擊而最終走人(申時行、王錫爵),內閣倒向文官時,就會被皇帝罷免(王家屏)。內閣成了夾心面包。可見這時的政治環境也是比較寬松的,政治天平也是完全倒向文官一邊。

    image.png

      “爭國本”事件結束后,緊接著而來的是黨爭拉開序幕。皇帝也成了黨爭雙方的利用工具。一般來說黨爭之后的結果是兩敗俱傷,而新的思想理論,立國方針政治理念等等,也在爭斗中逐漸露出端倪。所以明末的大思想家們層出不窮。這場黨爭其實就是心學、理學、儒學等思想理念的激烈碰撞。可以說,如果政治環境高度封閉,高度獨裁的話,是不可能出現這些的。不過黨爭在進行的過程當中,國家是非常脆弱的,明朝就亡在這個節骨眼上。

    image.png

      明朝前期經濟,文化,醫學,都是很發達的。比如鄭和下西洋,據說不止七次。繁榮了經濟,拓寬了視野。永樂年間,又發動全國之力發表了永樂大典,文化的繁榮反映了經濟的繁榮以及政治的豁達。到了萬歷年間,各種奇書層出不窮,金瓶梅,水滸傳,,西游記,等一系列文化達到空前的提高。可是由于萬歷皇帝采取的閉關鎖國,唯我獨尊的思想,而且在軍事上也是非常的懈怠,刀槍入庫,馬放南山,以至于以后的清朝入關,很多刀槍都生銹了。閉關鎖國,那是有事實證明的,比如意大利傳教士利馬竇來中國傳教,順便把數學代數科學知識帶給中國,可是萬歷皇帝不愛科技,竟然請利馬竇來宮廷修鐘表,這是其中一個例子。典型的閉關鎖國。總之,明朝的滅亡跟明末某些皇帝的怠政,以及重文輕武,昏庸無能,是密不可分的。前事不忘后事之師,以銅為鏡,可以正衣冠,以史為鏡,可以知興衰!

    image.png

    《路邊歷史編輯》

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