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    清朝菜市口簡介 該地理位置的歷史是什么樣的

      菜市口,清代殺人的法場。北京的胡同多,街口就多,名氣最大的當數宣武門外的菜市口。菜市口名氣大是因為那曾是殺人的地方,是刑場,有不少名人都是被斬首在菜市口。戲文中唱道“推出午門斬首”,其實是拉到菜市口“出紅差”,砍頭!犯人被殺后,尸體被人運走,血跡即被黃土墊蓋上,爾后便有人在此賣菜,菜市生意興隆,故菜市口由此而得名。

    image.png

      菜市口在京城的名氣可是不小,一千年前的遼代,這里是安東門外的郊野,金代是施仁門里的丁字街,明朝時是京城最大的蔬菜市場,沿街菜攤、菜店眾多,所以“四九城”的許多人都來此買菜,并把菜市最集中的街口稱為“菜市街”,清代時改稱“菜市口”,此名一直沿用到今日。

      歷史

      使菜市口名聲大振的主要原因,是清政府將殺人的刑場從明朝時的西四牌樓(當時叫西市)移至宣武門外的菜市口。據說當年的刑場就設于今天的菜市口大街北側十字路口附近,每到冬至前夕對判為“秋后問斬”的囚犯執行死刑。死囚在天亮前被推入囚車,經宣武門,走宣外大街到菜市口,囚犯由東往西排好,劊子手手執鬼頭刀也依次排列,頭被砍下來后,掛在或插在街中木樁子上示眾。清咸豐末年(1861年)“八大顧命大臣”之一的肅順和光緒二十四年(1898年)戊戌變法“六君子”都是在菜市口被殺害的。以后“菜市口”逐漸成為“刑場”的代名詞。1911年隨著清王朝的滅亡,刑場被轉移。以后這一帶逐漸成為宣外大街最繁華的商業街和交通樞紐。

      沿街菜攤菜店眾多,所以四九城的許多人都來此買菜,并把菜市最集中的街口稱為菜市街,清代時改稱菜市口,此名一直沿用到今日。

    image.png

      慈禧太后發動宮廷政變奪得政權,實行首次垂簾聽政時,受咸豐皇帝遺詔的八位贊襄政務大臣中的肅順,就是在此被殺頭的。戊戌變法失敗后,慈禧將譚嗣同、劉光弟等志士同仁殺害于此。據馬芷庠編寫的《北平旅行指南》記載:每逢秋后朝審,在京處決犯人眾多之時,由東向西排列,劊子手執刀由東向西順序斬決。所用鬼頭刀五柄、凌遲分尸刀十柄,現存于歷史博物館。舊時,犯人被押出宣武門(順承門),過斷頭(魂)橋,經迷市,送往菜市口法場,就不可能有生還的希望了。犯人被殺后,尸體被人運走,血跡即被黃土墊蓋上。

      出紅差

      菜市口和“出紅差”

      北京的胡同多,街口就多,名氣最大的當數宣武門外的菜市口。菜市口名氣大是因為那曾是殺人的地方,是刑場,有不少名人都是被斬首在菜市口。戲文中唱道“推出午門斬首”,其實是拉到菜市口“出紅差”,砍頭!

      (一)菜市口殺的名人還不是從拖著大辮子的滿清王朝開始。據說在菜市口被鬼頭刀砍下頭顱來的第一個名人是在距今八百年的元朝。殺的那個人就是南宋王朝的丞相文天祥。那時北京城叫大都城,菜市口還不叫菜市口,叫柴市口——賣柴的地方,后來幾經演變由賣柴變為賣菜,改稱菜市口。文天祥死得大義凜然,血濺菜市口,據說觀者也是人山人海。清朝時期,被刑部大堂判處死刑,驗明正身,秋后執行斬首處決,俗稱“出紅差”。為什么叫“紅差”?解釋有三:一曰砍頭,斷首之時血噴滿地,血染黃土;二曰劊子手一身粗麻赤紅行頭,頭裹紅頭巾,懷里抱的鬼頭刀,刀無鞘,刃不見天,全憑一幅赤紅的蒙刀布罩著;三曰驗明正身當場紅筆勾魂,在處決罪犯名字上用朱筆惡狠狠地打個對勾,剩下的就是“喀嚓”一聲。辛酉事變后,肅順被判菜市口斬首,這在當時轟動全國,整個京師震動。北京的老百姓都把英法聯軍侵略北京的賬記到肅順頭上了,認為是肅順誤國賣國,招致京城陷落。在給肅順“出紅差”的日子里,從宣武門到菜市口街道兩旁擠滿了憤怒的人群,就連兩旁酒樓茶市的人也顧不上講究身份派頭了,紛紛踩著桌子蹬著椅子。街道兩旁人群中吐唾沫扔果皮的不計其數,押解的刑部官員也憑空挨了不少冤枉。肅順在菜市口當斬之時罵聲不絕,直立不跪,最后行刑的劊子手硬是打斷雙腿才算跪下。在菜市口刑場,肅順也算是條漢子。

      二十八年后,菜市口血光映天,一位近代史上的奇人偉人被斷首菜市口,他就是“戊戌變法”六君子之一的譚嗣同。譚嗣同死得壯烈、輝煌、大氣。據說譚嗣同走向菜市口一路上在站籠中從容自若,面無苦色。鶴年堂前早已搭好監斬的官棚,監斬官就是大名鼎鼎的當朝軍機大臣剛毅。就在譚嗣同臨死之際,他突然叫住剛毅,很輕蔑但也很嚴肅地示意還有幾句話要說。剛毅是慈禧忠實爪牙,見此狀忙叫左右帶走譚嗣同,示意快斬,與死囚無言。慌亂之中把案臺的朱筆都帶落到地上。譚嗣同向四周微笑一下,大步走向菜市口中央。

    image.png

      死在菜市口的“戊戌六君子”,都死得浩然正氣。像死時年僅四十一歲的楊銳頭顱落地還兩目圓瞪,鮮血從脖頸中噴出,“血吼丈余”,后人評“冤憤之氣,千秋尚凜然矣”。劉光第遇難時,劊子手手起刀落,血流如涌,無首之軀竟不倒,驚嚇得整個菜市口鴉雀無聲,皆焚香求祥。

      菜市口刑場

      (二) 作為京師有名的刑場,菜市口成為當時京城的一大看點。

      每逢秋日,被判死刑的罪犯押解出獄,出宣武門走菜市口,有身份的坐騾馬拉的站籠刑車,沒有身份的則被武裝押送戴枷上鐐,臨終過鬧市。有身份使上“送行”銀子的,劊子手會叫一聲:爺!我伺候你走,也是吃哪碗飯辦哪樁差,您放心走好。劊子手手上的勁掌握得非常準,斷頭不掉頭,以便于人家家人抬尸,縫上頭落個整尸下葬。要是碰上沒地位沒使銀子的,提刀斬首抬腳蹬尸,一句客氣話都沒有。

      當時的菜市口兩旁鋪面已不少,每逢“出紅差”,街市兩旁都熱鬧非凡。不知為什么,人們都歡喜看那極其殘酷的一幕,懷著極大興趣喜氣洋洋地欣賞著別人生命的殘酷終止。

      “出紅差”時先張貼布告,臨到“出紅差”時臨街的鋪店都要在門口放一張條案,上面擺著三碗白酒,有的還放著酒壺,壺嘴朝外,示意送行。大講究的鋪店還要擺上幾碗蒸菜。犯人可以不停不看,可以不吃不喝,但送人上黃泉路上不能沒有酒沒有菜。在誰家門口喝了酒吃了菜,誰家就積德有報。鋪店前要掛紅綢子貼紅對子,像辦喜事一樣。請教過一位知情懂行的老人,答日:閻王爺有知會在賬目簿上記下功德。

      那年月,菜市口名氣旺,“出紅差”比老北京吉祥戲院唱戲還紅火。

    image.png

      一位朋友考評:菜市口一次殺人最多的是光緒初年,因一件盜皇陵的大案一次被判處死刑的就有七十多人,秋后監斬,光兵勇就出動數百人,拉蓋尸席的馬車就七八輛,監斬官騎著高頭大馬,戎裝持刀,殺氣騰騰,兩邊押解官兵刀出鞘,箭上弦,鳴鑼開道,煞是森嚴。因斬處的是土匪,怕搶劫法場,據說連街道兩旁的送魂酒都免了。菜市口地方不大,犯人按規矩由東向西兩行排開。時辰一到,報時官扯破嗓門大聲報時,監斬官手握朱筆,連連勾畫,劊子手各就各位,從東到西,依次砍頭。因犯人太多,劊子手少,砍上一氣也氣短手軟,這時有人托上紅托盤,上面有三大白瓷盅,一盅是水,一盅是茶,一盅是酒,喝什么全在劊子手。據那位朋友考證說,一般是先含一盅水,是清水,漱漱口,吐了;再干那盅酒,也是含在嘴里不喝,噴在鬼頭刀刃上,讓刀喝酒;最后那盅茶是要喝的,喝了以后再拖刀砍頭。對于跪在后面等著行刑的犯人來說,這太殘酷了,眼看著一顆顆人頭落地,一腔腔熱血如此噴流,還要等到劊子手清口、噴酒、歇勁、換刀,早就嚇得昏死過去了。

      相關事跡

      菜市口談往

      偶翻箱篋,于書中得一西鶴年堂藥單。西鶴年堂藥店位于北京菜市口丁字口的西北角。說起菜市口,那是明、清兩代京都著名的法定刑場。古代執行死刑,將尸體暴露街頭,稱為“棄市”,即所謂“刑人于市,與眾棄之”。每年秋審勾決,皆在此地。明代的楊繼盛、楊漣、袁崇煥等忠臣,清代,戊戌六君子譚嗣同、林旭、楊銳、楊深秀、劉光第、康廣仁等維新志士,都是在菜市口被殺的。

      清代有個許承堯寫過一篇《過菜市口》詩,把菜市口刑場的景象繪得頗具聲色,特錄于此以饗讀者。詩日:“薄暮過西市,踽踽涕淚歸,市人竟言笑,誰知我心悲?此地復何地?頭顱古累累。碧血沁入土,腥氣生伊蹶。愁云泣不散,六嚴聞霜飛。疑有萬怨魂,逐影爭嘯啼。左側橫短垣,茅茨復離離。此為陳尸所,剝落墻無皮。右側堅長稈,其下紅淋漓。微聞決囚日,兩役舁囚馳。高臺夾衢道,刑官坐巍巍。囚至匐匍伏,瞑目左右欹。不能指囚頸,一役持刀鋒。中肩或中顱,刃下難邃知。當囚受刃時,痛極無聲噫。其旁有親屬,或是父母妻。泣血不能代,大踴摧心脾。”

    image.png

      西鶴年堂藥店相傳建于明代,店號的匾,是明嘉靖年間的宰相嚴嵩寫的。其中“鶴”字筆劃獨多,與另外三字并寫很難勻稱,但卻布局很好,所以幾百年來一直為人稱道。記載它的文章也很多。據說,凡進北京的的人,都要到那里去瞻仰一番。甚至有傳說某日菜市口行刑,當夜,西鶴年堂藥店有鬼打門,要買刀傷藥。故長期以來北京流傳一名罵人話:“到西鶴年堂去討刀傷藥。”意思是說:“你這個人殺頭的。”

      在清代,刑場監斬官的高座位,常設于西鶴年堂店門口。搭一席蓬,下放一長方桌子,上擺朱墨、錫硯和錫制筆架,筆架上擱放幾支新筆。監斬官照例要在西鶴年堂坐一坐,稍事休息,再升座行刑。公案上的筆,卻是有幾個犯人便要預備幾支。這是何故呢?因為要殺一個人,劊子手提上頭來,監斬官照例要用朱筆在犯上頭上點一點。那支筆就會有人出許多錢買去。傳說這種筆可以壓邪驅魔。從另一角度講,一個犯人用一支筆,亦為劊子手和差役們的生財之道。


    《路邊歷史編輯》

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