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    太平天國北伐簡介 其背景,經過,結果是什么樣的

      太平軍北伐又稱太平天國北伐,是咸豐三年(太平天國癸好三年,1853年)至五年間,太平天國派兵挺進華北、企圖攻取北京的一次重大戰略行動。

    image.png

      洪秀全在廣西金田村發動金田起義,后占領南京,改南京為天京。定都天京后派林鳳祥、李開芳、吉文元等率2萬多人北伐。

      1853年5月北伐軍從揚州出發,經安徽、河南等地,進入直隸,逼近天津,咸豐帝宣布京師戒嚴。八月北伐軍進攻天津失利。1855年3月林鳳祥在連鎮突圍被俘。4月3日在北京就義。李開芳退守山東茌平馮官屯。被俘后被押解北京,6月11日凌遲處死。太平軍北伐最后失敗。

      背景

      咸豐三年(太平天國癸好三年,1853年)太平天國定都天京(今南京)后,為徹底摧毀清朝的統治,派兵西征的同時,天王洪秀全與東王楊秀清委派天官副丞相林鳳祥、地官正丞相李開芳為主將,率兵兩萬,由揚州出師北伐。

      這支從揚州出發的軍隊,數量著實不多,但質量卻精銳到驚人:清一色由從廣西出來的太平軍老兵組成,即太平軍常說的“老廣西”,這些老兵各個身經百戰,更對天國的信仰,堅定到了狂熱地步,作戰精神十分勇敢頑強,戰斗力更十分悍勇。

      經過

      北伐軍至浦口,又與春官正丞相吉文元等部會合,全軍兩萬人,先后北上。其目標是直搗清政府的老巢北京,以奪取全國政權。北伐軍遵照“師行間道,疾驅燕都,無貪攻城奪地”的戰略方針,一路轉戰江蘇、安徽、河南、山西、直隸數省,10月底便勝利到達天津附近。

      深入華北

      北伐軍由浦口出發,經安徽蒙城、亳州(今亳縣)入河南,克歸德(今河南商丘),因無船不得渡黃河,乃循南岸西趨,于五月二十一抵汜水,征得數十條船,開始搶渡黃河。二十六日,主力渡過黃河(一部未得渡,南返安徽),占溫縣,圍懷慶(今河南沁陽),與城內外清軍相持兩月。懷慶知府顏炳燾更立了奇功,在當地浴血阻擊太平軍,不但生生拖住了林鳳祥,更叫這支太平軍主力,迅速陷入清軍優勢兵力的反包圍中。清軍主帥納爾經額,深受咸豐帝信任的文華殿大學士,滿族大臣中少見的文化名流,上了戰場就現形,一開始自作聰明瞎指揮,被林鳳祥略施小計,擺了個假軍事工事就糊弄過去,輕松從清軍眼皮底下突圍而出,白浪費了顏知府阻擊出來的好局面。

    image.png

      七月二十八,北伐軍撤圍西進,經垣曲入山西,過平陽(今山西臨汾)、洪洞、黎城,東入直隸(約今河北),克臨洺關(今河北永年)、邢臺,北上藁城,東占深州(今河北深縣),稍事休整后即東進滄州,于九月二十七占領靜海和獨流鎮,在此屯駐待援(前鋒一度抵達天津西楊柳青)。

      京師震動

      北伐軍深入直隸,清廷震動,為解救京城危局,咸豐帝即命勝保為欽差大臣,率軍由南而北追趕,并命惠親王綿愉為奉命大將軍、僧格林沁為參贊大臣,率軍由北而南迎堵。從東北和蒙古調來大批精銳,全是清朝號稱弓馬騎射最強悍的老底軍隊。北伐軍占據靜海、獨流后,勝保即設大營于良王莊,僧格林沁設大營于王慶坨,進行圍堵。

      面對太平軍,清軍此時被嚇破膽的戰斗力,比如直隸大戰,奉命增援的黑龍江騎兵馬隊,被太平軍一個沖鋒,立刻被打的如鳥獸散,有些人由于跑的太積極,竟把馬匹武器全都扔光,連衣服盔甲都給扔掉,最后居然要著飯回了京城。那些日子北京城里乞丐扎堆,全是組團跑回來的八旗精銳。

      北京城的慌亂局面,更超乎后人的想象:太平軍攻克定縣的消息傳來后,全北京就炸了鍋,短短幾天時間,就逃出了三萬多戶十幾萬人,最慘淡的時候,京城平日最繁榮的前門大街,都是滿目荒涼,放眼望去一個人都沒有。

      面對困境

      如此大好形勢,身為主將的林鳳祥,也是壯志滿懷。早在打到河南朱仙鎮時,他就曾派人回天京匯報工作,滿篇全是壯麗景象:“自臨淮至此,盡見坡麥,未見一田,糧料甚難,兵將日日加增,盡見騎馬騾者甚多。忖思此時之際,各項俱皆豐足,但欠谷米一事。臨淮至此,著人帶文回朝數次,未知至否?如此山遙水遠,音信難通。茲今在朱仙鎮酌議起程,過去黃河成功,方可回稟各王殿下金安,無煩遠慮也。轉奏天王萬歲萬歲萬萬歲!”

      節節勝利的太平軍,一路雖說戰無不勝,但只是劫掠而非占領,因此越往北邊打,越身陷重圍,等到兵臨北京的時候,基本就已成孤軍深入,很快后路被斷,陷入團團重圍。

      北伐軍以流動作戰見長,一旦在靜海、獨流駐止下來,即迅速陷入清軍的重圍。而老天這時也不做美,這年中國北方的第一場雪,比往年來的都要早,來自南方的太平軍戰士,本就缺衣少吃,又碰上這惡劣天氣,立刻凍傷減員嚴重。又久等援軍不至,處境日益艱難,乃于四年正月初八突圍,南走河間縣束城鎮;一月后又突圍走阜城。清軍馬隊緊追不舍,北伐軍再度被圍。 [8-9]

      清廷合圍

      咸豐帝危急之下,調集兵馬組織了最悲壯的一次出征委以僧格林沁重任,是當時滿蒙貴族中最善戰的王爺。僧格林臨危受命后不慌不忙,改變以往與太平軍盲目死磕的犯二打法,改成一路圍追圍困,跟已經強弩之末的太平軍,打起來車輪持久戰。

      戰術一對路,戰局驟然反轉。太平軍先被阻擊在靜海獨流,被拖得瀕臨彈盡糧絕,無奈之下林鳳祥只好南走南走連鎮,樹木城,浚濠溝,堅守待救兵。

      這下更中了僧格林沁下懷,緩過氣的清軍,立刻集中優勢兵力猛撲過來,卻還是極有耐心的周旋:哪怕咸豐皇帝不斷死催他總攻,卻還是只當蒼蠅嗡嗡,堅持按照自己戰術打,就像幾塊巨石一樣,緩慢而扎實的朝著太平軍碾壓過去。

      這種戰術下,兇悍的太平軍北伐部隊,也喪失了最后得勝的機會。雖然絕境一下,太平軍的抗擊依然壯烈,林鳳祥在連鎮浴血死守,多次擊退僧格林沁的猛撲,他身邊最精銳的兩千老廣西勇士,盡數全部戰死。

      援軍潰散

      洪秀全、楊秀清得知北伐軍抵達天津附近后,才著手組織援軍。四年正月初七,夏官又副丞相曾立昌等率領援軍由安慶出發,經河南永城、夏邑渡黃河,由江蘇豐縣入山東北上,于三月十五攻克臨清,北距阜城僅200余里。但臨清城內糧械被敵軍焚毀殆盡,城外又有勝保部清軍趕到圍困,曾立昌等遂遷就部分新成員的畏敵懼戰情緒,竟置北援任務于不顧,二十六日棄城南走,途中屢戰不利,一退再退,以致潰不成軍,被清軍和地主武裝截殺甚眾,曾立昌等犧牲。援軍的潰散,使北伐軍的前途更加險惡。

      全軍覆沒

      林鳳祥、李開芳被困于阜城,不知援軍已到臨清。四月初九,北伐軍自阜城突圍,進據東光縣之連鎮。當天,清軍又趕到圍困。林、李為分敵兵勢,由李開芳率600余騎突圍南下,襲占山東高唐。勝保所部當即趕到,又將高唐圍住。從此,林、李分駐兩地,頑強抗擊清軍。

    image.png

      咸豐五年正月十九,清軍攻陷連鎮,北伐軍將士大多陣亡,林鳳祥被俘后解送北京,英勇就義。僧格林沁立即移兵猛攻高唐。二十九日,李開芳棄城南走茌平縣之馮官屯。僧格林沁又率數萬清軍趕到,圍攻兩月未克,最后只得在四周筑起堤壩,從百里外引水浸灌,馮官屯頓成澤國。四月十六,李開芳等被俘,在北京遭殺害。至此,北伐軍全軍覆沒。

      評價

      北伐軍失敗的主要原因,是太平天國的領導者于攻占金陵(今南京)后,對革命形勢缺乏清醒的認識,貿然派出 2萬余精銳,深入華北,謀取北京,結果陷入清軍重圍;加之后援部隊派出過遲,且于中途潰散,北伐軍遂失去了突圍南返的希望。這是太平軍自起義以來所遭到的一次最大損失。

      影響

      太平軍北伐,孤軍遠征,長驅六省,雖為精銳之師,但后援不繼,終不免全軍覆沒。廣大將士英勇奮戰,震撼清朝心臟地區,牽制大量清兵,對南方太平軍和北方人民的斗爭客觀上起到了支持作用。

      軼事

      太平軍酣暢淋漓的北伐勝利,還鬧出了爆炸般的國際影響。以英國為代表的西方國家,都是格外關注,照英國駐上海領事的說法,清王朝的滅亡,看似就是分分鐘的事。

      千里之外的倫敦,傳言更是:咸豐皇帝已經把大批皇宮財寶轉移到漠北去,一路都是黃金白銀,相當燦爛耀眼。

      而傳說中正轉移財寶的咸豐帝,其實已瀕臨絕望。甚至還給大臣們發表了一個哀嘆:明代之行見矣。也就是眼看要步崇禎帝后塵,爬煤山掛歪脖子樹的節奏。

      而比起明朝滅亡前的凄風苦雨,當時清王朝朝會上的悲慘景象,更堪稱昨日重現:每次咸豐召集群臣開會,剛說了幾句嚴重形勢,接著大臣們就是一群哭,朝堂上嚎哭聲震天,一連幾天都是如此,鬧得大清的各位高官,人人全是腫眼泡。


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