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    義和團的組織結構是什么樣的 首領和教案事件是什么樣的

      義和團由山東、直隸一帶的義和拳、民間秘密結社和練拳習武的組織發展而來。

      組織結構

      成員

      義和團的成分極為復雜,既有貧苦農民、手工業者、城市貧民、小商販和運輸工人等下層人民,也有部分官軍、富紳甚至王公貴族,后期也混雜進了不少流氓無賴,“上自王公卿相,下至娼優隸卒,幾乎無人不團”使得義和團的組織極為松散,不利于集中力量打擊敵人。

      據陳貴宗《義和團的組織和宗旨》所說,義和團的組織大致分為:

    image.png

      1.壇,是義和團的基層單位,又稱壇口,也有“廠”、“爐”、“團”、“公所”等稱呼。首領一般稱大師兄。

      2.總壇,設天津“坎”字總壇。為壇的上一級單位。

      3.門或團,為總壇的上一級單位。義和團按照八卦方位分為八門(團),如“乾字門(團)”、“巽字門(團)”等。

      4.義和團,是由所有義和團員共同組成的一個松散組織。

      此外,義和團還有“紅燈照”“藍燈照”“黑燈照”(寡婦組成)花燈照(妓女組成)等婦女組織

      義和團內部又可分為官團,私團與假團。

      所謂官團是指接受清廷的招撫,向清政府掛號,接受清廷官員的統率,領取其糧餉。官團得到清政府的承認,聽從其調遣。承認官團是清廷控制義和團的手段。

      私團則大多系團民自發組織,帶有很大的獨立性。自行設壇或從事“滅洋”斗爭。

      假團則有其復雜性,一般說來,義和團是一個幾乎人人可以加入的松散的組織,但實際上,有很多義和團組織被清政府以“偽團”,“假團”的名義鎮壓。“假團”分兩種情況,一是不服從清政府的統治并對其構成威脅,因而被消滅,是其鎮壓和消滅義和團的借口。二是部分不良分子甚至教民假扮義和團橫行不法,前者如“素不安分之徒,或投壇附和,或仿效裝束,魚肉良善。” (《天津一月記》)后者如“奉教者皆扮成假義和拳會,各處尋仇殺人,北京西城尤多”(《義和團運動史料叢編》)“直北一帶,天主教民往往效拳匪服色,四出行劫。有被獲者,自稱義和團,則地方官即釋之。”(《庚子記事》)。

      首領

      閻書勤(1860—1900),冠縣飛地梨園屯(今邢臺市威縣)人,領導了冠縣起義。

      趙三多(1841—1902),領導過冠縣起義,打出“扶清滅洋”的旗幟,義和團失敗后參加景延賓起義而在此過程中殞命。

      朱紅燈(?—1899),領導過平原起義,擊敗縣令蔣楷,在森羅殿戰斗中戰敗,后被捕處死。

      林黑兒(?—1900?),自稱“黃蓮圣母”,是紅燈照的領導者,天津失陷后被俘,不知所終。

      王立言(?—1899),山東義和團主要首領之一,朱紅燈死后在山東堅持戰斗,后失敗被殺。

      倪贊清(1862—1902),字翼臣,組織和指揮了著名的廊坊大捷。

      曹福田(?—1901),天津義和團首領。在老龍頭火車站與八國聯軍激戰。

      張德成(1846—1900),在獨流鎮創建“天下第一團”,后率部赴天津與聯軍戰斗。

      劉呈祥(1881—1900),別號劉十九,1900年19歲時在天津西郊高家莊設乾字壇,后在天津打擊八國聯軍,天津失陷后仍堅持戰斗。

      景廷賓(1861-1902),直隸廣宗人,1902年4月同趙三多等在巨鹿廈頭寺領導起義,改旗號為“掃清滅洋”,7月失敗被殺。

      失敗的根本原因:義和團運動的領導階級是農民階級,基本群眾是農民和小手工業者,提不出切合實際的革命綱領。最初,他們是以“反清復明”為宗旨,屢遭清政府的鎮壓。在嚴重的民族危機面前,義和團把斗爭的矛頭直指帝國主義,提出了“扶清滅洋”的口號。由于農民階級的局限性,沒有先進階級的領導,以慈禧太后為首的清政府,為了躲開義和團運動打擊鋒芒,被迫采取假宣戰,真投降的欺騙手法,對外投降帝國主義,對內鎮壓義和團運動,使義和團處于內外夾攻的境地。 在國內外敵人的夾擊下遭到了失敗。

      客觀原因:清朝與國外聯軍剿殺。

    image.png

      主觀原因:“扶清滅洋”中的“扶清”使義和團喪失了應有的警惕,盲目的排外。

      紀律

      義和團有自己的一套紀律,既有官方頒發的十條團規,也有自己獨特的規定,如“毋貪財、毋好色、毋違父母命、毋犯朝廷法,殺洋人、滅贓官,行于市必俯首,不可左右顧,遇同道則合十”等。

      這些戒規在初期得到了較好的遵守,當時有人的記載就說明了這個問題:“看其連日由各處所來團民不下數萬,多似鄉愚務農之人,既無為首之人調遣,又無鋒利器械;且是自備資斧,所食不過小米飯玉米面而已。既不圖名,又不為利,奮不顧身,置性命于戰場,不約而同,萬眾一心;況只仇殺洋人與奉教之人,并不傷害良民;以此而論,似是仗義”(《庚子記事》),有時義和團甚至擔負起維持治安的責任,如“ 刻有聶軍門(聶士成)所統之武衛軍兵多人,皆持器械,向各處搶奪。經匪首曹福田拿獲二十余人,皆殺死。”(《天津拳匪變亂紀事》)。

      義和團運動后期,由于成員日益復雜,出現了許多違法亂紀的現象,但連后來的清政府上諭也不得不承認“……淶涿拳匪既焚堂毀路,亟派直隸練軍彈壓。乃該軍所至,漫無紀律,戕虐良民,而拳匪專持仇教之說,不擾鄉里,以致百姓皆畏兵而愛匪,匪勢由此大熾,匪黨亦愈聚愈多” 對義和團后期紀律敗壞的記載:“城中日焚劫,火光連日夜……夙所不快者,即指為教民,全家皆盡,死者十數萬人。其殺人則刀矛并下,肌體分裂,嬰兒生未匝月者,亦殺之殘酷無復人理”,“京師盛時,居人殆四百萬。自拳匪暴軍之亂,劫盜乘之,鹵掠一空,無得免者。坊市蕭條,狐貍晝出,向之摩肩擊轂者,如行墟墓間矣。”“義和團之殺教民毛子也,京西天主堂墳地,悉遭發掘,若利瑪竇,龐迪我,湯若望,南懷仁諸名公遺骨,無一免者。勝代及本朝御碑,皆為椎碎。保定屬有張登者,多教民,

      教案事件

      同治元年(1862年),江西巡撫沈葆禎為教案事曾派員到民間密訪,問起民眾為什么要與教士拼命,民眾回答說:他們要奪我們本地公建的育嬰堂,又要我們賠他許多銀子,且叫從教的人來占我們的鋪面田地,又說有兵船來扶制我們。我們讓他一步,他總是進一步,以后總不能安生,如何不與他拼命?可見,教方妨害其生計的侵略活動,是迫使他們起來反抗的最直接原因。由于民受害最深,抗爭也就最堅決。當查訪者問及“教方真的有兵船來,難道你們真的與他打仗嗎?”民眾回答說:目下受從教的侵凌也是死,將來他從教的黨羽多了,奪了城池也是死……橫豎總是死。他不過是炮火厲害,我們都拚著死,看他一炮能打死幾個人。只要打不完的,十個人殺他一個人,也都夠了。

    image.png

      德國圣言會傳教士安治泰說:“哪里有教民,哪里就發生詞訟。”

      備受教案困擾的曾國藩在奏折中寫道:“凡教中犯案,教士不問是非,曲庇教民;領事亦不問是非,曲庇教士。遇有民教爭斗,平民恒屈,教民恒勝。教民勢焰愈橫,平民憤郁愈甚。郁極必發,則聚眾而群思一逞。”

      張汝梅在處理完大刀會案件后指出,教民“一經入教,遂以教士為護符,凌轢鄉黨,欺侮平民,睚眥之仇輒尋報復。往往造言傾陷,或謂某人毀謗洋教,或指某人系大刀會匪,教士不察虛實,遂欲怵以兵威。不知教士之勢愈張,則平民之憤愈甚”。

      袁世凱盡管極端仇視義和團運動,然對于民教相爭一節,仍不得不坦陳“東省民教積不相能,推究本源,實由地方州縣各官,平時為傳教洋人挾制……往往抑制良民……而教民轉得借官吏之勢力,肆其欺凌,良民上訴亦難伸理。積怨成仇,有由然也。”

      1861年恭親王奕?奏:“傳教士每以民間瑣事前來干預,致奉教與不奉教之人訴訟不休。……奉教者必因此倚恃教眾,欺侮良民……為地方官者,又或以甫定和給,惟恐滋生事端,遂一切以遷就了事,則奉教之計愈得,而不奉教者之心愈不能甘。”


    《路邊歷史編輯》

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