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    義和團簡介 產生背景和爆發的原因是什么樣的

      義和團由山東、直隸一帶的義和拳、民間秘密結社和練拳習武的組織發展而來。義和團運動又稱“庚子事變”,從某種意義上是自19世紀40年代以來中國社會出現的各種矛盾的一次總爆發。是19世紀末在中國發生的一場以“扶清滅洋”為口號,主要針對西方侵略者及其在華附庸,是具有強烈的樸素的愛國主義思想的完全由民間自發的暴力運動。面對八國聯軍的侵略,義和團進行了英勇抵抗,但最終在中外反動勢力的絞殺下失敗。

    image.png

      這次事件造成了很大的影響。中國史學家又把這次事件稱為“庚子國變”或“八國聯軍之役”。部分西方國家也使用“拳亂”的名稱(Boxer Rebellion)。日本則有人稱為“北清事變”。

      產生背景

      義和團的起源有多種說法:

      1、白蓮教說,這一看法的代表是勞乃宣的《義和拳教門源流考》。認為義和團起源于白蓮教。

      2、大刀會說,大刀會是清代華北由貧苦農民為主的一個團體,成員演練“金鐘罩”,認為可以刀槍不入,也被認為是義和團的起源之一。

      3、鄉團說,也有部分人認為義和團起源于民間的鄉團組織。

    image.png

      4、拳會說,在清代有許多傳播武術的民間團體,如義和拳、梅花拳等,特別是義和拳在長期發展中蒙上了濃厚的民間宗教色彩。被認為是義和團的前身。

      5、斧頭幫說,最撲朔迷離但也最有權利的,和其他起源不同,是義和團成就了斧頭幫,而不是起源于斧頭幫。總的來說:白蓮教→義和團→斧頭幫,期中中間夾雜的很多分支結構混亂,包括以上的大刀會和青幫、洪門、袍哥等,總的來說是中華民族民間義士的結晶。

      爆發原因

      義和團運動的興起是有多種多樣的原因的,其中最重要的原因是帝國主義與中華民族的矛盾日益激烈化。自甲午戰爭后,中國陷入了被帝國主義列強瓜分的境地,各帝國主義加強對中國的政治與經濟侵略,加深了中國的民族危機,使廣大的中國人民深受其害,成為義和團運動興起的根本原因。

    image.png

      導火索:1899年10月上旬,山東省冠縣飛地蔣家莊(今邢臺市威縣),教民和當地民眾發生沖突,義和團沖擊當地的教堂。知縣蔣楷派兵前往鎮壓。朱紅燈率團民數百人與清軍進行戰斗,將其擊敗。現如今在平原鄉間還流傳一句諺語“義和團起平原,不到三月遍地傳”。

      根本原因:19世紀末,各帝國主義瘋狂侵略中國邊疆和鄰近國家,中國邊疆地區出現了新的危機。甲午戰爭后,帝國主義在經濟上向中國大量輸出資本,在政治上則強占“租借地”和劃分“勢力范圍”,掀起了瓜分中國的熱潮。在文化上他們通過教會深入中國城市和鄉村進行侵略活動,使民族危機愈加嚴重,終于爆發了義和團反帝愛國運動。


    《路邊歷史編輯》

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