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    為什么說元世祖忽必烈的晚年生活是非常不幸的

      在忽必烈的晚年,他的個人生活也遭遇了一連串的挫折和不幸。他最鐘愛的妻子察必在1281的去世使忽必烈陷入孤獨和痛苦之中。察必所生的兒子真金早已被立為皇太子。察必還是忽必烈妻子當中唯一在太廟中立有牌位的女人。在忽必烈統治初期,察必是一位不可或缺的助手。也許是純粹的巧合,但是不可否認,在她死后,忽必烈個人,乃至整個中國都遭受了一系列的激烈變故。察必或許不能防止這些災難的發生,但是她也許能夠發揮自己的影響力,遏制忽必烈當時做出的一些稀奇古怪的決定。

    忽必烈

    網絡配圖

      南必在察必去世后成為忽必烈的正妻。她是察必的一個遠房親戚。可能是察必知道自己的健康狀況惡化后,親自選定她做自己的繼任者。遺憾的是,我們對她的繼任者的了解遠不如對她的那么多。據說,在忽必烈日漸衰老的時候,南必曾自己做出重要的政治決定。可能因為對察必和其他親屬去世感到憂傷和失望,忽必烈晚年很少見人,他的朝臣不得不通過南必向他呈送報告,而她則把忽必烈的決定和命令轉告給他們。漢文史料顯示,忽必烈在病重時,曾允許她以他的名義發布詔令,但他們并沒有指出哪些具體決定是由南必做出的。和當時其他許多蒙古皇后和貴族一樣,她個人是非常自信的,在政治上是很有影響力的。

      關于忽必烈其他妻子的記載很少。傳統上,蒙古可汗有四個斡耳朵,忽必烈也不例外。他的第一個妻子帖古倫,在他1260年成為大汗之前就去世了。他的最著名、最有影響力的妻子,察必和南必,同屬于第二斡耳朵。察必給他生了四個兒子,南必給他生了一個兒子。察必的兒子真金被選定為忽必烈的繼承人,另一個兒子朵兒只,先于他父親而死。其他兩個兒子,忙哥剌和那木罕,都未被選定為繼承人。

      但是,我們看到,忽必烈對他們有足夠的信任。忙哥剌被立為安西王(今陜西省),那木罕則是北安王。忽必烈曾派遣他們參加了幾次重要的軍事遠征。他的其他幾個兒子,其中包括脫歡,也承擔了重要的軍事任務,但是他們也受到了被征服地區文化的影響。例如,忙哥剌的兒子和繼承人阿難答,就是在一個穆斯林家庭中被撫養長大的。而且,根據拉施都丁的記載,在他成年以后,他使自己率領的十五萬軍隊中的大多數人皈依了伊斯蘭教。

      對于南必的兒子,我們一無所知。同樣,對忽必烈第三和第四斡耳朵的妻子,除了她們生了另外七個兒子外,其他方面的情況我們也是一無所知。

      察必無疑是忽必烈最鐘愛的妻子,她的去世和皇太子真金在1285年的英年早逝,不僅令忽必烈心碎,而且破壞了他的皇位繼承計劃。察必的突出地位可以由下列事實證實:在忽必烈所有妻子中,只有她的畫像留存了下來,這幅畫像是由漢人和蒙古畫家聯合繪制的。這無疑部分解釋了為什么忽必烈晚年在決策方面會反復無常,那是因為他對察必的去世感到深深失望。

    忽必烈

    網絡配圖

      同樣使他感到悲哀的還有他最喜愛的兒子真金的去世。真金是他親自選定的繼承人,他曾精心培養他,以便將來承擔大汗和中國皇帝的重任。真金的老師由當時一些最著名的人物擔任,他所學習的科目從中國歷史到佛教,無所不包,這一切使他完全有能力承擔統治帝國的重任。然而他剛過四十歲便去世了,這場變故使忽必烈心灰意冷,并使整個朝廷充滿陰郁的氣氛。真金的兒子鐵穆耳后來被選定為忽必烈的繼承人,并于1294年成為中國皇帝,號成宗。

      忽必烈的女兒只有兩位在歷史上被提及過,我們不清楚他到底一共有幾個女兒。不過,這一代年輕的蒙古宮廷女性對政治的影響微乎其微。從成吉思汗的母親訶額倫開始,一直到察必,蒙古女性都是很強有力的。然而,忽必烈的女兒在政治上沒有發揮過任何作用。或許她們受到了漢文化的影響,而漢文化嚴禁婦女參政,并極力限制她們的政治影響。另一方面,也許忽必烈的女兒根本就對政治缺乏興趣。不管最后的解釋是什么,中國史學家只記載了忽必烈兩個女兒的名字。據記載,妙嚴是一位虔誠的佛教徒,她成了一位尼姑,住在北京西山的潭柘寺,死后葬在那里。

      她拜觀音菩薩,“日夜熱心事佛,虔誠地叩頭,以至于石階上她的額印和腳印清晰可見”。她的畫像曾懸掛于這所寺廟的殿堂上,一本印刷于1935年的北京指南說,當時她的畫像還原封不動地掛在那里。忽都魯揭里迷失是忽必烈的另一個女兒,她也在歷史上留下了自己的名字。正如前文所述,她父親用她達到了自己的政治目的。

      他把她嫁給了高麗國王,這場婚姻加強了元廷和它的高麗屬國的聯合。對忽必烈女兒的其他故事我們知之不多,但是可以肯定,她們無法和忽必烈同時代以及以前的那些自信且富有個性的其他女性相比。

      個人的不幸加上國內外決策的失敗,使忽必烈感到沉重的壓力,也使他越來越轉向窮奢極欲,尋求安慰和滿足。宮廷宴會變得越來越奢華。宴會菜肴是以肉食為主的蒙古菜。為了使忽必烈感到舒心,日常飯食也是精心制作且相當奢侈。煮羊肉和烤全羊是兩道必上的菜,再加上其他肥膩食物作為肉食的補充。一頓典型的膳食可能包括烤羊羔肉、雞蛋、藏紅花拌生菜、烤薄餅、糖茶、忽迷思(馬奶酒)以及一種用小米做成的啤酒等。宴會飲食自然更加精致。蒙古人從不在乎暴飲暴食,特別在正式場合更是這樣。暴飲暴食成了一種習慣而不是例外。蒙古可汗歷來都酗酒,而此時忽必烈也養成了這種惡習。他暴飲忽迷思和葡萄酒,使他更無法解決面對的政治危機。

    忽必烈

    網絡配圖

      他的飲食習慣也造成了健康問題。在他最后十年的生活中,他一直被肥胖病和由此帶來的其他疾病所困擾。1280年劉貫道為他畫的像已經顯露出他的肥胖體態,但在13世紀80年代末,他的飲食習慣真正使他陷入了麻煩。他胖得不成樣子,并開始遭受痛風和其他疾病的折磨。他的酗酒習慣更加重了他的身體疾病。

      馬可·波羅是曾親眼目睹蒙古宮廷無節制宴飲場面的人之一。忽必烈和其他許多蒙古人一樣,無法節制他的酗酒習慣,特別是當他被悲痛和衰老控制的時候,更是如此。他用了各種各樣的方法治療他的病癥,從東南亞的藥物和醫生到高麗巫師,什么都用過了,但是都沒有解決問題,而他暴食暴飲的習慣依然如故。



    《路邊歷史編輯》

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